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Parent 1 line number (self-reported)


0 = No parent 1 present in household.


PELNPAR1 is a variable that indicates whether the person's first parent lived in the same CPS household and, if so, gives the line number (LINENO_CPS8) of that parent. PELNPAR1 is always the mother when the mother is present. The first parent will be male when parents are same sex. PELNPAR1 makes it easy for researchers to link the characteristics of parents and children and is particularly useful for studying cohabiting families. These variables are based on CPS respondent reports.

Beginning with the 2020 CPS, parents were no longer referred to as mothers and fathers, but by the gender-neutral term "parent" to accommodate families that include same-sex couples. The line number of the second parent is identified in PELNPAR2. Whether parents are biological, step, or adoptive parents is reported in PEPAR1TYP and PEPAR2TYP.

In the 2007-2019 CPS, respondents were asked whether each household member resides with his or her father and mother. If they responded yes, the interviewer recorded the father's and mother's line number (PELNDAD and PELNMOM). In addition, respondents reported whether the father is a biological, step, or adoptive parent (PEDADTYP). The same information for the mother is available in PEMOMTYP. Respondents also identified spouses (ASPOUSE), and cohabiting partners (PECOHAB).

PELNPAR1 was drawn from the final CPS interview, conducted 2-5 months before the ATUS interview. Parental location was not collected at the time of the ATUS interview.


This variable is comparable across time. This variable is available beginning with the 2020 CPS (see YEAR_CPS8).


  • All persons in the household at the time of the CPS interview.


  • 2020-2022