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Father's relationship to child (self-reported)

Codes and Frequencies

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PEDADTYP is a variable that indicates whether a person's father is a biological, step, or adoptive parent.

Since 2007, the CPS has collected detailed data on family relationships. If a household member resided with his or her father, the interviewer recorded the father's line number (PELNDAD) and whether the father was a biological, step, or adoptive parent (PEDADTYP). Similar data were collected for mothers (PELNMOM and PEMOMTYP). Spouses (ASPOUSE) and cohabiting partners (PECOHAB) are also identified.

These variables are reported as is and may need additional cleaning by researchers. In particular, when a child resides with one biological parent and that parent's cohabiting partner, the child is usually reported to live with only one parent. Researchers can use the information on the mother's cohabiting partner (PECOHAB) to identify those cohabiting stepfathers who are not included in PELNDAD and PEDADTYP. Married stepfathers are always identified by PELNDAD and PEDADTYP.

PEDADTYP was drawn from the final CPS interview, conducted 2-5 months before the ATUS interview. This variable was not collected at the time of the ATUS interview.


PELNDAD is consistent in all years for which it is available. These variables were not collected in the 2020 CPS or later (see YEAR_CPS8).


  • All persons in the household at the time of the CPS interview.


  • 2007-2020