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Codes and Frequencies

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RACE reports the racial category of all household members. Beginning in 2003, respondents could report more than one race.

RACE was drawn from the final CPS interview, conducted 2-5 months before the ATUS interview.


For ATUS respondents interviewed between January and May of 2003, RACE values were hand-imputed from previously collected information on race. Q2RACE identifies cases that were hand-imputed. RACE was not imputed for non-respondents or members of ATUS respondents' households. Comparability for all persons across all years can be achieved by using five major categories: "White only," "Black only," "American Indian/Alaskan Native," "Asian or Pacific Islander," and "Two or more races." However, the category "Two or more races" was not available from January to May of 2003.


  • CPS household members.


  • 2003-2022